Principles of conservation of cultural and historic places and building
2-1- General principles of conservation of cultural and historic places:
· Objective, theoretical principles and outcomes of planning and implementations of the project are required to be codified.
· All procedures of preparation of the project must be research-based.
· Authenticity, integrity and cultural significance of the place are required to be recognized, documented and preserved .
· All adopted measures must be based on latest scientific methods.
· Traditional know-how accredit the authenticity and integrity, hence they must be conserved along with revival and enhancement of its position.
· In the case of deficiency of traditional know-how, methods and materials for conservation of significance of cultural and historic buildings and places, new technologies and element are permitted.
· Iranian Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization is the competent authority to approve technologies, know-how and new materials. Considering the case and responsibilities, one of the below departments is in charge:
A) Cultural Heritage Deputyship
B) Research Institute of Cultural Heritage and Tourism
C) Technical Committee of the Fund
· All measures on conservation are required to be in compliance with reliable historical documents.
· All conservation processes are required to be documented in compliance with regulations and up-to-date technologies.
· The usage of new technologies is recommended for conservation, revival and utilization. ( different methods and types)
· Any intervention aiming at degradation, promotion or revision of the elements must be the least and following points are required in this regard:
A) Be essential.
B) Be efficient( the main materials must be used, opportunities for innovation and using new acknowledge and prospective experiences must be provided, intervention must be decreased)
C) Be irreversible.
Note: in exceptional cases that preservation of structure and significance of cultural and historical places requires special works which is not irreversible technically, any act or work is permitted with the permission of the responsible expert.
D) No damage to cultural, historical and artistic significance.
· Comprehensive view to features, capacities of the structure, cultural significance, conditions and capacities of surrounding environment should be effective.
· Criteria and principles of sustainable development must be considered.
Note: Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is called sustainable development.
· All research activities of designing and implementation must be done with permission of competent expert based on the approved plan.
· All research and conservation plans must be approved by competent reference.
· Pathology and pathogeraphy
· Conservation activities include:
Restoration, reconstruction, consolidation, revival, maintenance, relocation, documentation, utilization, defining land-use, determining proper management system, etc. Considering the values, actual and potential damages and threats, stakeholders’ needs, a set of aforementioned points will be considered according to scientific criteria, will be chosen, planned, designed and implemented.
2-2- Principles of preservation
2-2-1- Pathology and pathogeraphy
2-2-2- Prevention from development of decay
2-3- Principles of documentation
Documentation is a set of measures to gather and produce information related to the place aiming at research, conservation, revival, introduction and utilization. It can be done as follows:
2-3-1- Documentation includes gathering existing information and required data.
2-3-2- Producing analyzed information from documented data
· Recording the existing information
· Data of researches
· Executive intervening measures on the structure
- The content must be transparent.
- The validity and reliability of the quality of gathered information must be considered.
- Methods and tools must be multiplied and sustainable enough.
- The defining and presenting the documents must be readable, comprehensive, sufficient and have identity,
2-4- principles of consolidation activities:
2-4-1- consolidation refers to a set of activities for stabilization and strengthening the foundation and components of a building and associating decorations and architecture.
2-4-2- original materials, techniques and technologies must be done.
2-4-3- consolidation should not influence authentic proportionality.
2-4-4- consolidation should not damage authentic materials, artistic significance, general appearance and components.
2-4-5- the proportion of used materials in comparison to original materials should be in the way that keep the building homogenous.
2-5- Principles of reconstruction:
The required conditions are as follows:
2-5-1-When conservation, revival, enhancement of cultural and historic significance and promotion of local technologies (know-how) be influential or prevent from any damage to spiritual and cultural and historical significance.
2-5-2- The original architectural style and school must be considered in reconstruction.
2-5-3- It should preserve, revitalize and enhance intangible heritage capacities, aesthetic values, ethical and religious attachments.
2-5-4- It must assure the survival of the original components and materials.
2-5-5- The original and authentic components and materials should be used according to the documents till the building and its artistic appearance be well-understood in future.
2-5-6- New materials must be differentiated from original ones.
2-6- Principles of restoration:
2-6-1-New materials should not be visible.
2-6-2- Materials should be positioned according to documents.
2-6-3- The usage of maintaining components are permitted if they are not considered as original ones.
2-6-4- The usage of materials for consolidation is permitted if they will not been seen.
2-6-5- All attachment and association which are not related to the original situation of the building, must get removed.
2-6-6- The preliminary situation of the building must be recognized and proper methods of reconstruction must be chosen taking into account primary and reliable scientific theories.
2-7- Principles of relocation:
2-7-1- The relocation of historical places is permitted if the total internal and external threats on survival of the place makes its conservation impossible at the original location.
2-7-3- Cultural, historical and natural context of the building must be considered for choosing the new location of the building.
2-7-4- For relocation of a building, the usage of new technologies and science is necessary.
Temporary relocation of the components of a building aiming at research activities, conservation and introduction is subject to certain regulations.
Relocation of movable cultural objects found in archeological excavations, is subject to certain regulations.
Components and architectural materials which can be relocated are categorized in two groups:
a) The ones enjoying artistic, cultural or historical values related to special culture and definite place. They are eligible to be exhibited at museums
b) The ones enjoying general Iranian architectural elements with no attachment to definite objects. Re-usage of this kind of components and materials for revival of historic and cultural places of the same period is permitted considering certain regulations.
2-8- Principles of safeguarding:
A set of measures and activities to conserve the structure of a building and its associations against external man-made threats by acts done by:
b) The Mechanical
c) The Electronic
· Principles of safeguarding plans
· Identification and classification of external threats
· Designing triple safeguarding plans to encounter threats and damages.
· Providing necessary education for operators and stakeholders of the safeguarding plan considering the different levels of the responsibilities.
2-9- Principles of maintenance:
Maintenance refers to technical activities and measures required to sustain the structure, content and location of historic and cultural place in a standard condition. Maintenance process must be implemented prior to, during and after restoration, reconstruction, revival in order to prevent damages, decay and ruins.
2-9-1- Maintenance is a part of set of conservation activities for management programs and macro plans.
2-9-2- Maintenance should not coincide with restoration, reconstruction and revival.
2-9-3- Recognizing actual and potential dangers and threats caused by human and nature
2-9-4- Recognizing and classifying vulnerability of different parts of the place
2-9-5- Designing and implementing plans encountering omitting or controlling existing threats
2-9-6- Designing and implementing measures to resolve vulnerability and existing damages
2-9-7- Chronology of changes in structure and techniques during the maintenance and stabilization encountering the changes
2-9-8- Report on the necessity of restoration, revival, management and utilization caused by mentioned changes to competent references.